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CR doubt
by RUPALI GOYAL - Wednesday, 17 September 2014, 12:10 PM
  The Confucian idea of the group took the family as the model and then proceeded to extend this to the state and all under heaven. Confucianists' group interests were superior to those of the individual who should try to fulfill his obligation to the group. Based on this principle, there emerged the distinctions between righteousness and benefit, public and private, and principle and desire. In Confucianism, the chief means for upholding group life was to resort neither to a belief in monotheism nor to violent rule, but to ethics in order to cultivate ideas of loyalty, filial piety, humanity, righteousness, rite and so on. Individual interests must be subordinated to group interests. Moral action was to flow from reason and not be controlled by any external power. Therefore, the Confucian idea of group can be called ethical and normative. These notions of group and ethics tended to relate the characters of individuals from different social levels and were of great perduring force. This enabled feudal economies to develop and flourish. On the basis of this education in a strong sense of the group, there emerged in Chinese history many people with lofty ideas, patriots and national heroes, who sacrificed their lives for the group interest. This notion of group became a pillar for the harmony of families, the unity of the state and the survival of the nation. Which of the following statements is true with respect to the above Confucianist argument? a) Should an individuals' words and deeds violate the rules of his social status, the individual must be severely punished. b) Confucianism was marked by a strong sense of hierarchical and patriarchal relations; the stability and harmony which Confucianism pursued was based on regarding the patriarch as the head of the clan, and the monarch as representing the groups and enjoying all privileges. c) The idea of the group and ethics as a whole did not strive for individual rights, suppressed individuality and deprived inferiors of rights, which, in turn, generated social instability. d) The obligations one was called to fulfill became tools to preserve the privileges of the upper hierarchy.
Re: CR doubt
by ramawtar mishra - Wednesday, 8 October 2014, 01:34 PM
  The correct answer should be option D.