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Dagny Mam please help : Difficult CRs
by shriks aditya - Thursday, 9 September 2010, 01:15 AM
  Hi Dagny  / TG

A few CR doubts below : (I am not convinced by the official answers given for these.)
Can you please explain the correct solutions for these.
I have even googled these , but there are conflicting explanations in almost all the forums.



-A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s satellites showed that the
Ptolemaic theory of the motion of celestial bodies is false. Therefore, since the Copernican
theory of planetary motion is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic account, Galileo’s observations of
Jupiter’s satellites proved the truth of the Copernican theory. The argument above is open
to the objection that it makes the questionable assumption that

A. whoever first observed something inconsistent with the truth of the Ptolemaic theory should be
credited with having proved that theory false
B. there are some possible observations that would be inconsistent with the account given by the
Copernican theory but consistent with the account given by the Ptolemaic theory
C. the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, cannot both be based on exactly
the same evidence
D. numerous counterexamples were necessary in order to show the Ptolemaic theory to be false
E. the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, cannot both be false

OA  :E


-Investment banks often have conflicting roles. They sometimes act for a client company by
raising capital from other investment institutions as advantageously as possible, but their
analysts also sometimes send unfavorable reports on the financial health of companies for
whom they are raising capital to other clients who wish to make investments. Analyses of
companies’ financial health need to be unbiased if an investment bank is to achieve long-term
success. If the statements above are true, which of the following practices, if
adopted by an investment bank, would hinder its long-term success?
A. Evaluating and rewarding the bank’s analysts on the basis of recommendations made by
managers who are solely engaged in raising capital for clients
B. Using reports by the investment bank’s analysts to determine how best to raise capital for a
client
C. Sharing the task of raising capital for a client with other investment banks
D. Ensuring that conflicts between analysts and those who raise capital for clients are carefully
mediated and resolved by impartial arbitrators
E. Monitoring the success or failure of analysts’ current predictions about how companies will
perform financially, in order to determine the value of future predictions

OA : A


-Smithtown University’s fund-raisers succeeded in getting donations from 80 percent of the
potential donors they contacted. This success rate, exceptionally high for university fundraisers,
does not indicate that they were doing a good job. On the contrary, since the people
most likely to donate are those who have donated in the past, good fund-raisers constantly try
less-likely prospects in an effort to expand the donor base. The high success rate shows
insufficient canvassing effort. Which of the following, if true, provides more support for
the argument?
A. Smithtown University’s fund-raisers were successful in their contacts with potential donors who
had never given before about as frequently as were fund-raisers for other universities in their
contacts with such people.
B. This year the average size of the donations to Smithtown University from new donors when
the university’s fund-raisers had contacted was larger than the average size of donations from
donors who had given to the university before.
C. This year most of the donations that came to Smithtown University from people who had
previously donated to it were made without the university’s fund-raisers having made any
contact with the donors.
D. The majority of the donations that fund-raisers succeeded in getting for Smithtown University
this year were from donors who had never given to the university before.
E. More than half of the money raised by Smithtown University’s fund-raisers came from donors
who had never previously donated to the university.

OA : A


-A recent poll found that over 80 percent of the residents of Nalmed Province favored a massive
expansion of the commuter rail system as a means of significantly easing congestion on the
province’s highways and were willing to help pay for the expansion through an increase in their
taxes. Nevertheless, the poll results indicate that expansion of the rail system, if successfully
completed, would be unlikely to achieve its goal of easing congestion, because _______.
A. most people in favor of expanding the rail system reported less congestion during their
highway commute as the primary benefit they would experience
B. of the less than 20 percent of residents not counted as favoring the expansion, about half
claimed to have no opinion one way or the other
C. the twice-daily periods of peak congestion caused by people commuting in cars have grown
from about an hour each to almost two and a half hours each in the past 20 years
D. expanding the commuter rail system will require the construction of dozens of miles of new
railbed
E. the proposed expansion to the commuter rail system will make it possible for some people who
both live and work at suburban locations to commute by rail

OA : A

-A certain cultivated herb is one of a group of closely related plants that thrive in soil with high
concentrations of metals that are toxic to most other plants. Agronomists studying the herb
have discovered that it produces large amounts of histidine, an amino acid that, in test-tube
solutions, renders these metals chemically inert. Possibly, therefore, the herb’s high histidine
production is what allows it to grow in metal-rich soils, a hypothesis that would gain support if
______.
A. histidine is found in all parts of the plant—roots, stem, leaves, and flowers
B. the herb’s high level of histidine production is found to be associated with an unusually low
level of production of other amino acids
C. others of the closely related group of plants are also found to produce histidine in large
quantities
D. cultivation of the herb in soil with high concentrations of the metals will, over an extended
period, make the soil suitable for plants to which the metals are toxic
E. the concentration of histidine in the growing herb declines as the plant approaches maturity

OA :D