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Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Kumar Abhishek - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 12:17 AM
  cat 2010 cat 2011 critical reasoning Today’s article comes from another founding father of TathaGat, Mr. Kumar Abhishek, popularly known as ‘Kumar’ and hands down the best verbal instructor in Delhi. Though he is great fun in his classes, he is a terror if you cross his rules, i.e. forget to submit your weekly book reviews, come without flashcards or The Hindu newspaper in the class, or arrive late for your class. But if you follow all that, you would forget about the time during his classes. He regales the students with his command in both Hindi and English. To quote a student “kumar sir is tough only in the first few classes......then it's a smooth ride......and keeps the  mood of the class light and interactive with his wisecracks and sudden outbursts of unadulterated hindi....like "mera abir balak kahan hai".........and "yatharth ka dharatal"........"prabal sambhavana" and many more…” For those who would like to know, his favourite words are “Bhasad” and “Hawabaz” which he can be seen quoting once in every 5 sentences. Even his fan club on TG Town is known as ‘Bhasad’. Not to mention that he is extremely famous among his students. Once we were so full of reading his praises on the internet that we started pulling his leg “Aap hi to kahin jakar nahin likhte rahte hain internet par apne bare mein?” :P Lol, but he is too modest and too immersed in his books and movies to waste time on trifles.

This article is the first in the series that I have emotionally blackmailed him to write. Do post your questions and queries over here and I shall pressure him to respond (‘pressure’ not ‘pressurize’ as he keeps on telling me) smile- Total Gadha


Critical Reasoning

CR has always remained a predominant area of all the aptitude tests across the globe. There are seven main question stems under this domain.

You might be asked to

  • Find the Assumption

  • Infer

  • Conclude

  • Strengthen the Argument

  • Weaken the Argument

  • Summarise

  • Complete the Paragraph

 

Starting with this article, we shall try and take these stems piecemeal, beginning with ‘assumptions’.

But, before we begin handling the question stems, it is important to turn a few pages backwards, and understand some basic terms in logic.

The entire realm of logic thrives on the word Argument. An argument is NOT a verbal scuffle between persons. The normal, day-to-day connotation that we have come to attach with the term grossly misleads us into thinking that if two persons are fighting, with a heated exchange of words, they are ‘arguing’. This is sheer sacrilege!!

For example:

X: Avatar is a good film.
Y: No, it is not!
X: Yes, it is!
Y: No, it is not!
 

is NOT an argument. It is a small exemplary piece of communication between fools. (Ah!! And one sees so MANY of such arguments everywhere!!)

Now, compare the following with the previous:

X: Avatar is a good film.
Y: No, it is not!
X: Yes, it is! It grossed the maximum revenue ever in the history of all films.
Y: No, it is not! Revenue cannot be the single criterion to decide a film’s ‘goodness’. (Yes, there IS such a word, in case you are wondering.)

Now, THIS is classic argumentation. You see, the difference between the two exchanges is that, while the previous exchange merely lobs ‘opinions’ (read conclusions, in logic), the latter supports the conclusions with ‘reasons’ (read premises). Hence, for an argument to exist, we require a conclusion which is based upon at least one premise. Mere exchange of continual opinions CANNOT be termed argumentation.

Therefore,

Argument= Premise/s + Conclusion.

Having understood the structure of an argument, let us examine some more examples.

Argument 1.

Ravi is a good boy because he helps others.

Argument 2.

India is the best country for it is the largest democracy of the world.

Argument 3.

TG is the best educational website available because its sole focus is the welfare of students.

Understand that the non-italicised parts are conclusions, and the italicised ones are the premises.

(Exercise - Can you think of ways to undermine/strengthen the aforementioned arguments?)

These are examples of one-lined arguments. While solving questions, you will come across longer arguments.

It is easy to figure out how to separate the conclusion from the premises. When you read the statements of the argument, try to ask “why do you say so”, to the statements. For example, in A1, if we ask ‘why do you say so’ to the statement ‘Ravi is a good boy’, the latter part answers satisfactorily. Hence the statement that answers the why is the reason or premise. Whereas, the statement to which we posed the question, becomes the conclusion. If, on the other hand, you ask the ‘why do you say so’ to ‘he helps others’, the former part cannot answer.

You can do this as an exercise with longer questions. And, it is important to get this first step correct if you want to solve questions at a fast pace. I am attaching some long questions here. Try to figure out which statements are the premises, and which the conclusion. I shall help you with the first two.

Ex. 1

Mr. Janeck: I don’t believe Stevenson will win the election for governor. Few voters are willing to elect a businessman with no political experience to such a responsible public office.

Ms. Siuzdak: You’re wrong. The experience of running a major corporation is a valuable preparation for the task of running a state government.

In this conversation, Mr Janeck’s conclusion is that ‘Stevenson will not win the election’. When asked ‘why do you say so’, the latter part of her conversation provides the basis for the former opinion.

Similarly, in Ms. Siuzdak’s argument, the conclusion is that Mr. Janeck’s opinion is wrong. Her premise is stated immediately afterwards.

Ex. 2

At one time, European and Japanese companies tried to imitate their American rivals. Today, American appliance manufacturers import European scientists to lead their research staffs; American automakers design cars that mimic the styling of German, Italian, and French imports; and American electronics firms boast in their advertising of “Japanese-style” devotion to quality and reliability. In the world of high technology, America has lost the battle for international prestige.

Here, the conclusion is - In the world of high technology, America has lost the battle for international prestige. The premises stated are examples from the ‘appliance’, ‘electronics’ and the ‘automakers’ sectors.

Your turn now!!

1.

Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all.

2.

The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this, the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.

3.

At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic. According to the company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls of small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than this.

4.

In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

5.

Reva: Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their attitude toward school and schoolwork won’t work. Take the program in West Virginia, for instance, where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school. The program failed miserably.

Anne: It’s true that the West Virginia program failed, but many schools have devised incentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance and reducing discipline problems.

(Provide premises and conclusions from both Reva’s and Anne’s statements.)

6.

The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair.

 

Although I started with the idea of tackling assumption based questions, I shall get back to them in upcoming articles.

Books To Refer:

Critical Reasoning GMAT Preparation Guide

 

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Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Dagny Taggart - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 08:32 AM
  Hi Kumar Sir,

Good to have you here. Welcome to the Donkey Land. smile

Dagny
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by aniket garg - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 10:15 AM
  Hi kumar sir

I always loved attending your classes at TG. They were simply the best . And now that you'll be posting online , it'll be great .
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by vijayshree menon - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 10:50 AM
 

Hi Kumar Sir,

Really a very good article.

Answers :

1. Conclusion: It is ironic that the innocent passenger suffers for the driver’s carelessness

Premise : As per the study , it is the passengers , who face the fatalities  and not the driver.

2. Conclusion : the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.

Premise : The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast

3. Comclusion:  the mania for high technology

Premise : at an enormous research cost, manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic, that can also make  smal boat hulls

4. ( easy one ) Conclusion : Increase in the the number of bird species in London.

Premise : Strict air-pollution regulations on local industry

5 Reva's Conclusion: Extraneous incentives to teenagers wont change thier attitude towards school and school work

Reva's Premise : E.g of The program involving revoking of the driving licenses of kids who left school in west virgina to reduce the school dropouts

Anne's Conclusion : Incentive programs are effective in changing the attitude of teens towards school work

Anne's Premise : incentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance and reducing discipline problems

6 . Conclusion : The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry

Premise : Though Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads.they end up paying more Taxes

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by arun gaurav - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 02:32 PM
  hello sir...
you are out standing sir...
although i attended your one class..  but, i am big fan of you now....
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by kumar swambhu - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 04:57 PM
  this article is like water for the thirsty ones . hoping for the rain
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Nidhi Garg - Sunday, 4 April 2010, 11:08 PM
  THANKS...
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Himanshu Jaggi - Monday, 5 April 2010, 10:01 AM
 

Hi Kumar Sir,

Good to see you here..! Nice article..smile

Thanks

Himanshu

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Disha Ahuja - Monday, 5 April 2010, 10:39 AM
 

Hi Sir,

I wanted to ask/ confirm that many a times in an argument the conclusion is not explicitly mentioned however the premise helps us identify it.

For instance,

Anne in example 5 doesnt explicitly say that she supports the incentive program, but she means it.

 

Am I correct?? ;)

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Anubhav Das - Monday, 5 April 2010, 11:54 AM
  Truly an "ENLIGHTENING" session....thanks Kumar sir..smile 
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Kumar Abhishek - Monday, 5 April 2010, 12:32 PM
  @ Vijayshree: Bull's eye!!! Absolutely Correct!!

@ Disha: Yes Disha, you are right! And by the way, the correct expression is "many a time". With 'many a' determiner, the noun and the verb to follow take a singular form. e.g.

Many a man has attempted to tame nature.
Many an apple has turned bad this winter. et al..


@ Arun: 'Outstanding' is one word Arun.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by vivek singh - Tuesday, 6 April 2010, 12:52 AM
  This is really a very good material for people who are preparing for CAT............... Thanks for the article, and I am hoping some more articles on this topic ..........
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by aditya singh - Tuesday, 6 April 2010, 04:19 PM
 

Beautiful article!!!

Simply brilliant!

Thank you very much sir!

Some how prep materials and books seem to complicate things more than what is needed .

The simplicity with which everything was explained here is amazing!

 

Thank you once again sir.

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by vineet Pardasaney - Tuesday, 6 April 2010, 08:20 PM
 

Its for the First time i realised what an argument is actually all about....Now, i wonder what my boss used to do with me was a verbal scuffle and not an argument for sure!!! lol

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by vijayshree menon - Tuesday, 6 April 2010, 09:08 PM
  @ vineet : I wonder If there any scuffle at all .... Many a time ,there is no dailogue , its just the monologue delivered by the boss ;)
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Manika Tandon - Tuesday, 6 April 2010, 11:58 PM
 

Hehehehehe...

welcome aboard Kumar...

The description couldn't have been better TG... smile 'Bhasad' & 'hawabaaz'... :D

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Malkesh Adesra - Wednesday, 7 April 2010, 02:29 AM
  A helpful article.

@Kumar Sir: "... it is a small exemplary piece of communication between fools."

Isn't the conclusion about fool prejudiced ?
The statement, "...is NOT an argument" is true and thats all the conclusion we can have from this, nothing about the fools. wink

I have heard 'exact' same statements between two of my friends...8 or 9 years old. None of them are fool by any standard.

Thanks for the tips.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by vinay mudgil - Wednesday, 7 April 2010, 06:21 PM
  I found this as a very simple & effective article. Below are my answers.....

1.

Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all.

Premise -- Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed.

Conclision -- It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all.

2.

The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this, the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.

Conclision --To correct this, the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.
Premise --The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast.

3.

At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic. According to the company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls of small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than this.

Premise --According to the company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls of small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than this.

Conclision --At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic.


4.

In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

Premise --the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically
Conclision --London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry



5.

Reva: Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their attitude toward school and schoolwork won’t work. Take the program in West Virginia, for instance, where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school. The program failed miserably.

Premise --where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school
Conclision -- The program failed miserably AND Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their attitude toward school and schoolwork won’t work.


Anne: It’s true that the West Virginia program failed, but many schools have devised incentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance and reducing discipline problems.

Premise --West Virginia program failed
Conclision --many schools have devised incentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance and reducing discipline problems.


6.

The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair.

Premise --Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair.
Conclision --The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry.


Are my answers correct ?

Thanks !!!
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by S Singla - Thursday, 8 April 2010, 01:29 AM
  Hi Sir,
 
So finally here, congrats !!!

I was hoping that your first article would be about Rashmirathi.
But, it seems logic is your favorite genre.

Really miss the classes
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Kumar Abhishek - Thursday, 8 April 2010, 03:15 AM
  @Sanchay: Oye kab result aa raha hai tera? smile
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Kumar Abhishek - Thursday, 8 April 2010, 03:17 AM
  @Vinay: Hi Vinay, Plz check Vijayshree's answers...they are bang on target.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by vinay mudgil - Thursday, 8 April 2010, 09:00 AM
  Thank you Abhishiek.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by venkat iyer - Friday, 9 April 2010, 12:34 AM
 

4.

In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.


Here shouldn't the conclusion be:

Air pollution laws should be imposed in major cities similar to that in London.

Premise:In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically


I seriously think this shud be the answer instead of the one posted by Ms menon.


Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Prashanti U. - Friday, 9 April 2010, 01:53 PM
  I think the answer for question 4 should be the one provided by Mr.Iyer.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Kumar Abhishek - Friday, 9 April 2010, 05:01 PM
  @Venkat: You are right Venkat. My mistake. Had gone through the answers rather hurriedly. Apologies.

@Vijayshree: Kindly modify this answer. The correct conclusion in this argument is the one provide by Venkat. Apologies.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by S Singla - Saturday, 10 April 2010, 03:16 AM
  Sir,
aap industry me ho, I really dont have any idea.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Prashant Sahni - Thursday, 15 April 2010, 09:46 PM
  Dear Sir, once in the text you have used the following sentence:-

"Try to figure out which statements are the premises, and which the conclusion"

Is it correct? Shouldn't you say "...and which ARE the conclusion". Doesn't it seem a little awkward? Or at least there should be comma between 'which' and 'the'.

Awaiting your reply,

A yatharth's dharatal pe standing hawabaz...big grin

Prashant Sahni...Valentine's Day Batch.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Kumar Abhishek - Friday, 16 April 2010, 02:20 PM
  Hi Prashant

Your query is quite justified, since there seems to be an agreement problem here. If it were a stand-alone sentence, I would be as concerned. But, in the flow of the passage it is completely standard and formal usage. So, even though the verb for 'conclusion' (if used separately) should be 'is', in THIS sentence, there is no need to modify it. Standard Dickensian usage! smile
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Aspirend Achieve - Tuesday, 20 April 2010, 10:06 AM
 

Hi Sir,

This is really a superb article...you explained the thing in a very easy way.smile

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Alan Kumar - Wednesday, 21 April 2010, 07:20 PM
 

Hi Kumar Sir,

Its really a nice article , in fact i love TG site's everything.

According to my knowledge, i am posting what i felt is right. Please correct me if am wrong anywhere. I really need to Verbal for GMAT.

1. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all.-- Conclusion
Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed.-- premise


2.  the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.--Conclusion
The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this--Premise

3. At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic. According to the company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls of small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? - Premise

Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than this - Conclusion

4. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities - Conclusion

In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically - Premise

5. Reva: Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their attitude toward school and schoolwork won’t work. -Conclusion 

 Take the program in West Virginia , for instance, where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school. The program failed miserably.- Premise 

Anne: It’s true that the West Virginia program failed, but many schools have devised incentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance and reducing discipline problems - Conclusion

No premise in Anne's case.

6. The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry. - Conclusion

Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair - Premise

Thanks,

Alankar

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by gaurav midha - Thursday, 6 May 2010, 01:15 AM
  Hi Kumar Abhishek,
    First of all Thanx for the awesome article.I have gained a lot from this article.

I would just like to say Hats off to you.........and hope that you will never stop sharing your knowledge.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by zoiks guy - Monday, 10 May 2010, 11:31 PM
  Hi Sir,

Its a really nice article, I must say.
However, I am curious about two things:
  1. TG has used the word 'pressure' and not 'pressurize'. I could not understand why.
  2. You wrote "TG is the best educational website available because its sole focus is the welfare of students." Here, do you think the bold part should be 'its sole focus is ON the welfare'?
Please correct where I am mistaken here.

TIA
Jaggy
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Total Gadha - Tuesday, 11 May 2010, 04:26 AM
  Hi Zoiks,

The word 'pressure' when used as a verb means: to force (someone) toward a particular end; influence: They pressured him into accepting the contract.

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by swati saxena - Wednesday, 12 May 2010, 12:43 AM
 

Hi Sir,

I came across one of the lines used in the post

"TG is the best educational website available because its sole focus is the welfare of students."

Should'nt it be sole focus is on the welfare of the students?

Is the correct usage  focus is  or  focus is on or are both correct.

Thanks. 

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by kasturi gvl - Wednesday, 20 October 2010, 09:57 PM
  Hello Sir,

I have a doubt in a reasoning question from CAT 92:

We have planned development with a view to raising standard of living of our teeming millions. Hence our economic
development is inspired by social justice.
Q Which of the following will weaken the argument?
(a) Without economic development standard of living cannot be raised.
(b) Social justice implies economic prosperity.
(c) Development cannot be planned.
(d) None of these.

The answer is given to be (c) although it is negating the premise which is the first sentence ("planned development").

Kindly clarify.
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Surendran Chandravathanan - Wednesday, 3 November 2010, 02:28 AM
 

Hi Kasturi,

Here, the conclusion is "Development is inspired by social justice". The reason (premise) being "Development is planned".

Now, as per the question, the option C clearly weakens the conclusion. I mean it's the opposite of the existing premise.

Hope you have understood now. Perhaps, you would have overlooked the question.

Regards,

Suren

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Nikhil Sinha - Monday, 15 November 2010, 11:42 AM
  Hi Kumar/TG Sir/ Dagny Maam, My cat is on 22nd, so would request if someone could kindly look into the below questions of CR,I have answered all of them, but am confused in some of them.... Please correct me wherever I am wrong. smile 1.Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all. "It is ironic..." forms the conclusion, whereas the "Studies fatal automobile accidents..." forms the premise to support it. 2. The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this, the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come. "The earth's resources.."- Premise "To correct this..." - Conclusion. 3. At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic. According to the company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls of small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than this. "At an enormous research cost.... But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? " - Seems to me the premise (posing a question to the company's claim to conclude later on as the madness for technology ...not sure though!) "Surely, the mania..." -forms the conclusion that "it" could not get worse... 4. In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities. " In the years...."- forms the premise. "Similar air-pollution rules.." conclusion, supported by example of the city of London. ? 5. Reva: Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their attitude toward school and schoolwork won’t work. Take the program in West Virginia, for instance, where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school. The program failed miserably. Anne: It’s true that the West Virginia program failed, but many schools have devised incentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance and reducing discipline problems. (Provide premises and conclusions from both Reva’s and Anne’s statements.) "Using extraneous.. won't work" - Conclusion 1 "Take the program....failed miserably" - premise 1. "It is true that the west Virginia... many schools have devised incentive programs" - forms the Conclusion 2 "..that have been very successful.."- premise 2.? 6. The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair. "The burden of maintaining ..." -conclusion "Road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to ..." premise. Question: Can the "Truck represent only about 10% of the vehicles on US roads" be considered a part of the premise?
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Nikhil Sinha - Monday, 15 November 2010, 11:44 AM
  And sorry for the bad alignment of the above post sad
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by swati karki - Wednesday, 17 November 2010, 12:22 AM
  though i got correct ans for other questions bt sir i am confused about this one


"In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities."

what i thought was
for the premise blushn the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry
the conclusion is :-the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically
and for the premiseblushn the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically.
conclusion is:-Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

anyways must say the article is superb no doubt TG provides best of the material for the MBA aspirants. smile
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by akshay jain - Wednesday, 20 April 2011, 12:06 AM
  hey nice article..

I have doubt in a question. plz hve a look.

As an experienced labor organizer and the former head of one of the nation’s most powerful labor unions, Grayson is an excellent choice to chair the new council on business-labor relations.

(A) The new council must have the support of the nation’s labor leaders if it is to succeed.
(B) During his years as a labor leader, Grayson established a record of good relations with business leaders.
(C) The chair of the new council must be a person who can communicate directly with the leaders of the nation’s largest labor unions.
(D) Most of the other members of the new council will be representatives of business management interests.
(E) An understanding of the needs and problems of labor is the only qualification necessary for the job of chairing the new council.


I am a bit confused in B and E. Plz clarify..
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by Anjali Gaba - Wednesday, 20 April 2011, 12:27 PM
  what is your doubt 
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by tgdel206 tg - Friday, 13 May 2011, 10:02 AM
 

Hi Akshay,

I think Option B should be the right answer as the statement states the choice to chair the new council on business-labor RELATIONS in general. However, option E limits the relations ' by an understanding of the needs and problems of labor"

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by ritesh dahiya - Thursday, 14 July 2011, 12:05 PM
  very good article sir, this helps me a lot..
thank you sir..
sir i didn't get the aane conc and premise plz explain..

Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by I will WIN - Wednesday, 28 September 2011, 06:02 AM
  Nice article. Very helpful. :D
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by abhishek abhi - Saturday, 8 October 2011, 07:36 PM
  i feel the option " B " as the answer
Re: Critical Reasoning Basics- 1
by shailaja gupta - Monday, 4 August 2014, 10:27 AM
  Hi Sir
I have already given the GMAT once(for ISB). Is Manhattan good enough to prepare for Critical Reasoning-CAT?
Please help.
Thanks