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Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Friday, 11 May 2007, 08:47 AM
  cat mba critical reasoning fact inference judgmentCAT 2006 came as a surprise to many. The difficulty level of the quant section nosedived and that of the verbal section skyrocketed. Gone were the regular "jumbled paragraphs" or "usage" questions and in their places were "paragraph completion" and "fact-inference-judgment" questions, both of which required more of logical reasoning and critical thinking than of verbal ability. And suddenly common sense became uncommon. Confusion reigned supreme. Verbal section needed more brains than quant section.

"I was gratified to be able to answer promptly. I said I didn't know."-- Mark Twain

Unfortunately, the CAT takers couldn't get off the hook so easily. But many succumbed to the pressure and committed egregious errors. The easiest of the questions, the inference-fact-judgment questions, stumped many, probably because of their newness or the pressure of the CAT paper. But all that those questions required were understanding the given definitions and applying the parajumble method of working with options. In this article, I will expand the meanings of the three definitions and give the examples from the CAT 2006 paper. Who knows, CAT 2007 might again feature some version of these critical reasoning questions.

FACTS: deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification. The key word here is "verification". A fact is a statement that can be "verified", i.e. a fact is either true or false. Facts are statements that may involve numbers, natural phenomena, dates etc. The characteristics of the statements classified as facts are:

·        Made after observation or experience. An event cannot become a fact unless it has occurred.
·        Confined to what one observes; cannot be made about the future.
·        Limited number possible.
·        Not perception dependent. A fact will be agreed to by every person. It does not change from person to person.
·        Tends to bring people together in agreement.

Examples:

1)      Nearly 2 lac students took CAT last year.
2)     
Life exists on other planets (although physically not possible to verify, this statement will be either true or false).
3)     
I like Pink Floyd more than Metallica (It may not seem so, but this statement is either true or false. Either I like Pink Floyd more than Metallica or I don't).
4)     
The legislature is advocating vigorously against intrusion of judiciary in parliamentary affairs.
5)     
A football field is 100 yards long.

NOTE: Notice the difference when a sentence contains subjective or abstract expressions-

6)      The music was very loud (NOT a fact as the loudness might vary from person to person).
7)     
I found the music very loud (A fact as it is either a truth or a lie. I must have found the music very loud or not very loud).
8)     
Poverty is a curse on mankind (NOT a fact... "curse on mankind" is too abstract).
9)     
20% of the population live below poverty line (Fact).

"FACTS" STATEMENTS IN CAT 2006 PAPER:

1)      The government has been supplying free drugs since 2004, and 35 000 have benefited up to now- though the size of the affected population is 150 times this number.
2)     
Only about 13 million children in the age group of 6 to 14 years are out of school.
3)     
The truth is that we have more red tape- we take eighty- nine days to start a small business, Australians take two.
4)     
The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms.

INFERENCES: are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known. Notice the three words "conclusions", "known" and "unknown" very carefully. They will give you complete description of what an inference consists of-

·        Known- A fact. The first thing an inference should consist of is a fact. This fact is required to prove another proposition.
·        Unknown- Something which can be logically proven by the given fact or the "known". Therefore, in an inference an unknown proposition is present which is to be proven with the help of the fact. Remember that this proposition has to be proven with the help of another fact.
·        Conclusion- Once the unknown has been proved with the help of the known (fact) it is called a conclusion.

Notice the meaning of the word "Infer". To infer means
·        to conclude from evidence; to deduce
·        to have a logical consequence. (an inference = a conclusion)

Therefore, the process of inference can be summarized by the figure given below:
 

cat mba fact inference judgments critical reasoning

Examples:

1)      Because the old man stayed indoors all the time and did not receive any visitors, no one discovered his dead body for days.
(the green part is the fact and the brown part is the conclusion. Notice that without the explanation given by the fact, you cannot convincingly prove the conclusion.)
2)     
The footprint warned Robinson Crusoe that there was someone else on the island.
 

"INFERENCE" STATEMENTS IN CAT 2006 PAPER:

(the facts are in green and the conclusions are in brown)
1)      The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDScare Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people.
2)     
According to all statistical indications, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals.
3)     
Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with an official, and such contacts have the potential to become opportunities for money to change hands.
4)     
Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us- they only change in color.
 

JUDGEMENTS: are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations, and occurrences in the past, the present or the future. There is a fine line of distinction between inferences and judgments. Most of the times judgments are also based on facts and therefore they seem like inferences. But there are some ways to differentiate a judgment and an inference-

·        Judgments are arguable and contestable. Inferences are rock solid. Although both judgments and inferences are based on facts, in the latter the conclusion is so unquestionable that it becomes fact itself.
·        Judgments are opinions, suggestions and recommendations whereas inferences are proven conditions.
·        Judgment statements include a lot of quantities that cannot be measured, such as happiness, beauty, joy etc.
·        Many a times, judgments are not accompanied by facts at all but are only opinion statements. When there is no fact involved, the statement can only be a judgment statement.
·        A judgment is an honest attempt to make reasonable observations about the given facts but they do not conclusively prove anything.

Examples:

1)      It is estimated that that 30% of Indians live below poverty line. (judgment: if it is an estimate, it cannot be a fact).
2)     
Every mother has only the best interests of her children at her heart. (Is there a way to look inside a mother's heart?).
3)     
Because we had three wars with our neighboring country, we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one.

"JUDGMENT" STATEMENTS IN CAT 2006 PAPER:

1)      So much of our day-to-day focus seems to be on getting thins done, trudging our way through the tasks of living- it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?
2)     
We are not doing things that make us happy; that which brings us joy; the things that we cannot wait to do because we enjoy them so much.
3)     
This is the stuff that joyful living is made of- identifying your calling and committing yourself wholeheartedly to it.
4)     
When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you; there is a rush of energy that comes with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love most.
5)     
Given the poor quality of service in the public service, the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.
6)     
But how ironic it is that we should face a perennial shortage of drugs when India is one of the world's largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world.
7)     
The Mid-day Meal scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds.
8)     
The goal of universalisation of elementary education has to be a pre-requisite for the evolution and development of our country.
9)     
We should not be hopelessly addicted to an erroneous belief that corruption in India is caused by the crookedness of Indians.
10)  
Red tape leads to corruption and distorts people’s character.
11)  
Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict.
12)  
Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed.

That’s all folks! In the next article I will expound on the building blocks of critical reasoning and how to break arguments into its blocks in order to solve questions. I will take up some GMAT critical reasoning questions and dissect arguments step by step. Till then, chew the cud over the present article…Cheers!

I shall have to end here and leave the rest of it for my CBT Club students. I shall cover some problems based on this in the CBT Club this week.

 

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Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by priyanka sharma - Friday, 11 May 2007, 02:42 PM
  hi tg,
you have written a very nice and informative article. this is a section where most of the ppl inclusing me got their answers wrong. thanks for explaining it so beautifully.
priyanka.
hello TG
by sudama baraily - Friday, 11 May 2007, 11:03 PM
 

this was a very good article.i really gained from this  article.  thanks again.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Mukesh Gupta - Friday, 11 May 2007, 11:07 PM
 

Hi,

Really a great work.Plz keep it up.I have one doubt,isnt

The truth is that we have more red tape- we take eighty- nine days to start a small business, Australians take two.
should be an inference.As  "we take eighty- nine days to start a small business, Australians take two" is definitely a Fact.And "The truth is that we have more red tape" has been derived from this fact.

 

Plz reply.Thanks

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Saturday, 12 May 2007, 12:15 AM
  Hi Mukesh,

Good question. This article took four days to write just because of this particular statement because I also debated over it. Then I looked at other inferences and found one similarity- the fact and the conclusion are disjoint (separate) things. I mean, it never happened in an inference statement that the conclusion was an extended meaning of the fact itself. In this case, red tape is nothing but taking longer time and it is the extended meaning of the fact.

I couldn't find any other plausible explanation. Maybe if you have a look at the 'inference' statement in the CAT paper, you will understand what I mean. But I will not contest you if you still have doubts. I am not very satisfied either.

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Niral Kamdar - Saturday, 12 May 2007, 09:38 PM
  Hi TG,

Can u help with the answer for this critical reasoning question I am bit confused

A valid argument is often defined as one in which it is not possible for all the premises to be true and the conclusion false. A circular argument is sometimes defined as one in which one of the premises is identical to the conclusion. From these definitions we can infer that...

  A. Every circular argument is valid as long as its premises are true.

  B. Every valid argument is circular.

 C. No circular argument is valid.

  D. Some circular arguments are valid, and some are not.

  E. Some circular arguments are not valid, and some valid arguments are not circular.
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Deep Thinker Gadha - Sunday, 13 May 2007, 01:11 AM
  Hi Guru,
Yesterday when i saw this article here and two controversial things came into my mind. First, I encouragedapprove to try to solve and think over these Fact, Inference and Judgement based questions. And Second, I was started to think about timedead management as nowdays i'm struggling for the time as very much hungry for the same.

However, This article gives a fair idea for thinking on such questions. A nice groundwork strategy.

Waiting for the next article ...........thoughtful.

Regards,
Sandeep
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Sunday, 13 May 2007, 01:03 PM
  Hi Niral,

I think A is the answer. In a circular argument, the conclusion is identical to one of the premises. That means if all the premises are true then the conclusion is also true as conclusion is same as one of those premises. Therefore, every circular argument is a valid argument. Don't look at otion D and E. The statements "Some X are Y" or "Some X are NOT y" have no meaning in logic (syllogisms).

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Sunday, 13 May 2007, 01:05 PM
  Hi Sandeep,

Struggle is good. It adds to the fun. smile

I think I will write something 'mathy' this time. So much verbal is churning my entrails. wink

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by chinni kiran - Tuesday, 15 May 2007, 01:00 PM
 

Hi TG,

the follwing sentence sounds more like fact than inference to me.

'Because the old man stayed indoors all the time and did not receive any visitors, no one discovered his dead body for days'

see the following sentences..

'My friend couldn't take exams because he had fever' ....isn't it a fact?

'It rained yesterday because of the depression in bay of bengl'............it's lke a fact.

Do you mean here we can prove even when because part is not mentioned?

then shuldn't teh sentence be like this.

'Because the old man stayed indoors all the time and did not receive any visitors, no one Would be ABLE to discover his dead body for days'

if it was "no one discovered his dead body for days" here we can still prove that he was discovered late......even without the because part................iti's like a fact.


plz clarify..........

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Tuesday, 15 May 2007, 01:48 PM
  Hi Kiran,

Fact- The old man stayed indoors all the time and did not recieve any visitors. Can you prove why no one discovered his dead body without mentioning this?
Fact- My friend had fever. Can you prove why your friend didn't take the exam without this information?
Fact- There was a depression in Bay of Bengal yesterday. Can you prove why it rained without this info?

The point is that the conclusions may also be facts (they have to be as they are proven deductively through facts) but they cannot be stand-alone statements. They need another fact to support them.

I think the better way to explain is this- if i give you the fact only, you may be able to deduce the conclusion. If I tell you there was a depression in the Bay of Bengal yesterday, you might be able to reason deductively, "then it must have rained yesterday.." If I tell you that your friend was sick yesterday, you might be able to say, "he had an exam yesterday, so he must not have taken the exam..." and so on.

And I agree with your rephrasing of "the old man and the dead body.." big grin (sorry mr. hemingway)

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by chinni kiran - Tuesday, 15 May 2007, 06:12 PM
 

thanks TG...

I think I am gettingit now.......also...the differences between inference and judgement are so subtle. But your 'rock-solid' points under judgement are invaluable to find the diffrence.

by the way can we say 'Many a times'? isn't it 'many a time' or 'many times'

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Kunal Gupta - Tuesday, 29 May 2007, 03:53 PM
 

Hi TG Sir,

have 1 confusion..

Because we had three wars with our neighboring country, we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one.

Why this is judgment... why not inference as the fact is : Because we had three wars with our neighboring country and conclusion is we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one.

 

Pls clarify...

 

Thanks 4 article.. Started at least to think..

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by KayBee Aar - Tuesday, 29 May 2007, 04:44 PM
 

Hi,

Wat I understood was ..."we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one" is somebody's opinion. That is not a direct conclusion of "Because we had three wars with our neighboring country".

The clue is "we shud"....I might ask "why shud we?"...hence the statement is subject to argument and cannot be verified.

Rephrasing the sentence,

Because we had three wars with our neighboring country,  our armed force is ready for the fourth one.

In the above sentence..."our armed force is ready for the fourth one" can be true or false..hence can be verified hence it can be an Inference.

 

Kaybee

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Tuesday, 29 May 2007, 05:39 PM
  Hi Kunal and Kaybee,

The point is that if I tell you the fact, it should give rise to conclusion naturally. Here, the fact that we had three wars does not give rise to the fact that we will have the fourth war. Therefore, the conclusion about keeping the armed forces ready does not arise directly. Let me give you an example:

Kaybee is wearing black today. Black must be her favorite color.

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by ankur aggarwal - Tuesday, 29 May 2007, 06:22 PM
 

Dear Sir ,


First of all i would like to thank you for such a nice article. I really like the initiative that has been taken by totalgadha to cater to the needs of student preparing for CAT and hitting the nail on head with every article.Thanks for all the support that you are providing to us.
And as usual I also have some queries which i wanted to clarify :-

1. Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with an official, and such contacts have the potential to become opportunities for money to change hands.
Cant this be an opinion. If i raise the question that why such contacts have the potential to become opportunities for money to change hands. Isnt this an opinion of a person.

Regards,

Ankur


Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by KayBee Aar - Tuesday, 29 May 2007, 07:38 PM
 

Hey TG..surprise

Correction...black is HIS favourite colour...

 

KayBee...

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Dagny Taggart - Tuesday, 29 May 2007, 08:56 PM
  big grinbig grinbig grin
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by sgx100 Online - Wednesday, 20 June 2007, 01:55 AM
  Dear TG,

The article made for a very interesting read.
I really had a tough time segregating the Facts, Inferences  and  Judgments from each other. I am practicing them again n again to get a grip on the same. I will definitely post my doubts n queries.

Would you be kind enough to tell us how to go about with syllogisms. Particularly with FIJ based making their presence felt in CAT after a time...I get a gut feeling this time around we r going to see the resurgence of syllogisms.

Could you help us with the same.

Looking forward to some gyan on the topics of syllogism

Thanking You
sgx100

IIM -  Batch of 2008-10

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Thursday, 21 June 2007, 04:25 AM
  Hi sgx100,

Let me see if I can prepare a small write-up on syllogisms. I doubt though that syllogisms will ever come back.

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by sgx100 Online - Thursday, 21 June 2007, 05:59 AM
  Dear TG,

Thnx, will be eagerly looking out for the post of urs.
Well even if syllogisms fail to turn up in CAT 2007, we can always add to the existing database for future reference. ( Just a personal opinion ) big grin

Cheers
Sgx100
IIM - Batch of 2008-10
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Neena Jha - Wednesday, 11 July 2007, 05:49 PM
 

Hi TGsmile

Great job done!!! This topic indeed needed a thorough explanation. Would you mind giving us some practice exercises so that we could test our concepts in FIJ.

Regards,

Neena

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by avik chakrabarti - Wednesday, 18 July 2007, 03:22 PM
 

Hi TG,

Your article on Facts, inferences and judgements really was of great help to me.Same here like others. A small doubt......

The Mid-day Meal scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds..

We can clearly see the first part of the sentence is a fact and based on the fact a conclusion is drawn that a vital link is established.Can u tell me why is it not an inference?

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by avik chakrabarti - Wednesday, 18 July 2007, 03:30 PM
 

Hi TG,

Your article on Facts, inferences and judgements really was of great help to me.Same here like others. A small doubt......

The Mid-day Meal scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds..

We can clearly see the first part of the sentence is a fact and based on the fact a conclusion is drawn that a vital link is established.Can u tell me why is it not an inference?

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Akon Convict - Tuesday, 24 July 2007, 12:07 PM
 

Hi TG

i want some sample questions on FJI to parctice

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Satendra Kumar - Friday, 3 August 2007, 06:29 PM
 

Hi TG!!! Awesome Work...

You know what!!!  I gave 2006 CAT.. but never checked the correct answers for English as i feared of extremeley low marks..however that was not to be.. I scored 96 percentile in Vocab section.(God Knows How). One thing I remeber was i went by instincts and knew i was correct..thats it.

But this time no more chances.. can you plz help us with some tips on Inferential reasoning (which statement would follow the paragraph)

Tnx...

Satendra wink

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Varun Kumar - Wednesday, 15 August 2007, 07:03 PM
 

Hi TG,

Absolutely brilliant wrk on these......

A question to ask:

The no. of sentences a question contains is 4. Should each sentence be treated uniquely or can it be linked with the previous statement. An example to illustrate:

Statement 1: While the convergence areas for customers used to be near station areas and bus-stops, it is now the malls that attract footfalls.

Statement 2: Lease rentals near the new convergence areas would be high.

The first is a fact. Is the second an inference or judgement because the rule for inference as per what I've understood from your lesson is that it MUST have a fact. But if this statement is a standalone statement then there's no fact and it becomes a judgement. Plz. clarify.

Thanks,

Varun.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Varun Kumar - Wednesday, 15 August 2007, 07:08 PM
 

Hi TG,

Could u plz. give lessons on paragragh completion type of questions. They have been appearing constantly in CAT 2005 & CAT 2006.

Kindly give some lessons plz. as I feel it is an area to score but I somehow missed them in CAT 2006.

Regards,

Varun.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by priyank daga - Friday, 17 August 2007, 11:40 AM
  hi tg i am still waitin for the next lesson on this ...also a session on completing the paragraph which has been thr in cat for a long time
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by harish kambam - Friday, 17 August 2007, 01:24 PM
 

hi tg

1 doubt regarding FIJ

a)A new red wine which claims to be more a health tonic than alcohol as it contains 32 % more of the antioxidants than regular redwines will soon be sold in the UK.

b)Althoug our body produces antioxidants which clears up those dreadful free radicals which lead to cell damage,they aren't enough.

c)It is being funny how so many things in life swing from being considered good to becoming outright eveil and sometimes back to being good again.

d)All the people who enjoy their vices,whatever they may be-feel free to do so,for they are bound to be considered healthy at some point of time.

1)FFJJ    2)FIIJ   3)FFIJ    4)FIJJ     5)FFJI

The first sentence talks about something which is going to happen in the future,then how can we can conclude it as a fact?

As u told an event cant become a fact unless it occured then the first statement shouldnt be stated as fact.

plz clarify my doubt

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by harish kambam - Friday, 17 August 2007, 01:28 PM
 

hi varun.

the second statement clearly is an opinion because even though it had a fact it cant be an inference because judgements can be questioned but inferences cannot be.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by jupiter jones - Sunday, 19 August 2007, 07:33 PM
 

hi TG,

Ur way of expalnation regarding FIJ is impressive but I need more practice sets regarding this. Also i need lots of practice sets regarding verbal logic(assumptions/inferences paragraphs).

Tips are very badly needed for paragraph completion and also practice excercises too.

Jupiter

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Total Gadha - Sunday, 19 August 2007, 10:55 PM
  Hi Jupiter Jones,

You remind me of the 'Three investigators" I used to read in my teens. I wonder how a brain like yours cannot deduce facts in verbal. tongueout

I will try to create some FIJs and paragraph completion for you folks. Give me some time. smile

Total Gadha
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by suman singla - Monday, 17 September 2007, 09:50 PM
  hey TG its really a nice article provided by u...it is really very informative...apart from my routine studies i visit this site regularly and really benefit from the articles provided here....smile
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by garima jain - Tuesday, 18 September 2007, 06:54 PM
 

the first statement is a fact as it is states others claims.what someone other says ,when stated by some one else is a fact.wether occured or not.

 

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Singhvir ... - Tuesday, 25 September 2007, 07:35 PM
  hi Tg..

"I found the music very loud (A fact as it is either a truth or a lie. I must have found the music very loud or not very loud)."

if this is a fact.. then shouldnt the following also be a fact?

"To my eyes, the closest equivalent to the Rowling phenomenon, regarding both the teh dispersion of the work worldwide, as well as its sheer popularity, was Agatha Christie "

thanks
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Kaustav Mukherjee - Thursday, 27 September 2007, 03:02 PM
 

Hi TG,

the article given by you was a vey informative one.... i have been victim to this question many a times and when i have sat to analyse these questions i have always been confused between inferences and Judgements.

the tips mentioned by you are really helpful and i will keep them in mind.

thanks a lot.

Kaustav

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by abhijeet singh thakur - Tuesday, 2 October 2007, 06:27 PM
 

hi tg,

u hv done a gr88  job by doin this..many ppl do these things wrong including me..bt this hs clear my views of facts jdgmnt n inference n nw i can do these typ of questions correctly with effort...thnks alott

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by libren libra - Thursday, 4 October 2007, 12:43 AM
  Hi TG
            A very useful article indeed........I have been a regular but silent sudent or urs( my first post)......but of all the sources of information regarding CAT....TG is the best.......U rock man...........

Need your help regarding Paragraph Completion as in CAT many of the options were goin with the para so lot of mistakesblack eye
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Srinath Ravichandran - Thursday, 4 October 2007, 09:23 AM
 

Hi TGians,

Here is something I wuld love to know. Consider the following statements:

a)The decision of the pharma sector to support freebies is welcome.

Ans: This obviously is an judgment. I don have a doubt here.

b)Some experts feel that the decision of the pharma sector to support freebies is welcome.

Ans: This accroding to me is a fact. This is because what these experts feel is not our point of concern. But whether they feel this or not can definitely be verfied. So this must be a fact.

c)I feel that the decision of the pharma sector to support freebies is welcome.

Ans: NOW>>> thoughtful this is confusing. Expressing what one feels(that too saying it is welcome) is definitely a judgement(expressin approval).  However, instead of jus stating what I feel, if i precede that with a " i feel that" clause, will it become a fact as is the case with "some experts feel......" .

Waiting for ur judgements on my inferences abt the above three statements big grin.

: If i m totally wrong, pl be pateint and crrect me.

 

THanks a lot.

AMAZING FORUM THIS IS TURNING OUT TO BE>.....

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by harry potter - Thursday, 4 October 2007, 01:20 PM
 

Hi TG

I appreciate ur work on these articles but then , i have few doubts w.r.t the definition of the FACT.

Can you please explain me the below sentences?

deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification

and

 A fact will be agreed to by every person. It does not change from person to person.

what i understand is that, the fact if not verified will not be accepted by everyone. IF it is open for verification, that becomes the perception of the person who has experienced it.

please correct me if i am wrong.

awaiting for your response!

thank you

harika

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by subhadeep das - Tuesday, 9 October 2007, 06:19 PM
  it would be a great help if you could  write a similar article ob upstream/downstream sentences or any other other new reasoning oriented verbal abilty which you think may come in CAT 2007 [ smile]
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Shubham Agarwal - Friday, 12 October 2007, 01:59 AM
  Hi , the article was awesome.I was expecting some CR questions based on similar pattern ( as you promised In the next article ..... I will take up some GMAT critical reasoning questions and dissect arguments step by step.). In my opinion this year again we will have similar kind of CR question which generally appears in GMAT papers .
I am trying my best to get those CR question which are generally asked in GMAT. If you could do it on TG that would be of great help.

thanks a ton in advance smile


 
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by gOd's chILd!! - Friday, 19 October 2007, 07:19 PM
 

to whomsoever it may concern..!!

INFERENCE :gorillas prefer eating nuts to eating fruits.

it Doesn't Contain any fact.or let's put it ds way..;it doesn't have ny damn known part. !

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by meera singh - Friday, 26 October 2007, 07:07 PM
 

hi tg ure article so informative .i tell u smth  for the last few days ihave been doing fij's only  i had a confusion b/w facts and inferences. what i was told in coanching was complety diffrent from ure input.though it was also helpful but not always  now i will  use ure points let u know abt improvement

 

thank u

meera singh 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by meera singh - Friday, 26 October 2007, 07:21 PM
 

hi tg ure article so informative .i tell u smth  for the last few days ihave been doing fij's only  i had a confusion b/w facts and inferences. what i was told in coanching was complety diffrent from ure input.though it was also helpful but not always  now i will  use ure points let u know abt improvement

 

thank u

meera singh 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by nishant shekhar - Monday, 29 October 2007, 01:27 PM
 

hi TG,

U have mentioned "I found the music very loud " as a fact .

Dont u think it shud come under the category of judgement. Can u clarify plzz.

and  "Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us- they only change in color."

in the above sentence "we know tat" slightly tilts the meaning towards being a FACT.

and Finally , u say :

FACT : Only about 13 million children in the age group of 6 to 14 years are out of school.

Judgement : It is estimated that that 30% of Indians live below poverty line. (judgment: if it is an estimate, it cannot be a fact).

How do u diffrentiate between  the above 2 lines ???

Thankuu

before u clarify my doubts , i must thanku a google times for so many useful posts u and Dagny have given us , really a wonderful work .

 

waiting for ur reply.......

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by hemant agarwal - Sunday, 4 November 2007, 12:20 PM
  dear tg
you say that an incident has to occur before it becomes a fact."An event cannot become a fact until it has occured".what is this then a f,i or j
I will go to school tomorrow.
Thanks
Hemant
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by r c - Thursday, 8 November 2007, 09:05 PM
 

A few doubts:

The below mentioned sentence was amongst 4 odrs (somebody posted it here only) to b classified f,j,i. I think it shoud be a judgement, but that wasnt one of da options, plz clarify:

"Althoug our body produces antioxidants which clears up those dreadful free radicals which lead to cell damage,they aren't enough."

Secondly, is it because of the words 'significant' and 'vital' (opinions) that the below mentioned sentencs is a j and not f?:

"The Mid-day Meal scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds."

Thirdly, y isnt the following sentence an inference?:

"But how ironic it is that we should face a perennial shortage of drugs when India is one of the world’s largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world."

Does 'ironic' make it an judgement?

If yes, then why isnt the following sentence also a judgement because of 'ambitious'?:

According to all statistical indications , the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals .

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Himanshu Jaggi - Tuesday, 4 March 2008, 10:37 AM
 

HI TG,

Very informative well crafted article...keep doing the good work.

Cheers...!!

 

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Himanshu Jaggi - Tuesday, 4 March 2008, 11:31 AM
 

Hi TG,

Just wondering about "FIJ" concepts, U have shown the insight of IFJ cepts and what I really feel after reading your article is is that these question requires very much logical reasoning than it looks like in the very first go, my question is do you really think that these questions were doable when an average student was taking his cat06-verbal, coz at that time definitions were given only...an average guy might not have that much insight what he must be having after reading your article.

Why i am making this point is to know whether to touch the questions which are on fresh concpts (as these IFJ in 06)in cat or not, though I know it really depends "how well you understand the concept on D -Day" 

 

Cheerss....

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Namrata Khubchandani - Saturday, 29 March 2008, 05:12 PM
 

hi....

 

would it help if i read some gmat material for critical reasoning? whats the comparison between gmat and cat critical reasoning.. is it lower or higher in level of difficulty?

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by avinash Verma - Thursday, 3 July 2008, 11:30 AM
  thanks , for such a good article,I hope next time there will be article on lateral statement, supporting statement,deduced statement.
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by vinayak iyer - Saturday, 5 July 2008, 11:43 AM
  Hello sir really benefitted a lot from this website.  But should say , "fact inference and judgment"  has been my weak link. Your articke on the same was excellent and hope you keep comming up with such articles. Can you recommended any book that I can buy for extra practice of "fact inference and judgment" type questions
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by shilpi mishra - Wednesday, 9 July 2008, 07:21 AM
 

hi,i have a doubt  

Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us- they only change in color

here the phrase,"we know that" indicates that the statement is a opinion.so it should be judgement.i suppose.let me know if i am wrong.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Lokesh Jain - Thursday, 10 July 2008, 09:47 AM
  Hi T.g
I found this article of yours very informative.can u please upload some practice questions on download it section..plz...
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Saurabh Kumar - Saturday, 12 July 2008, 06:37 PM
  This is an excellent article TG....its really great...
and thanks to your forunm which is helping us prepare for cat even after being in london
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Priyabrata Das - Saturday, 26 July 2008, 12:09 AM
  4)      The legislature is advocating vigorously against intrusion of judiciary in parliamentary affairs.
doesn't 'vigorously'   attach some information or veiw about the way the
legislature is advocating against ...

so i think that makes it a judgement.
had it been

   The legislature is advocating against intrusion of judiciary in parliamentary affairs.  den that's a Fact
am I right
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by IIM Calling!!!! - Wednesday, 6 August 2008, 02:27 AM
 

Hi TG Sir,

Please clarify the following doubts:

1) Why can't the following statements be an inference?

The Mid-day Meal scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds.

Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed

2) Why can't the following statement be an fact?


Red tape leads to corruption and distorts people’s character

 

Thanks & Regards

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Aashish Dua - Friday, 8 August 2008, 03:18 AM
 

Hie TG Sir,

Just wanted to propose a vote a thanks to you for this article. This articles of yours has made my concepts more clear and better especially your valuable points related to inference, though I used to have a fairly decent accuracy in FIJs and from now on I'll try to attain scores as close as possible to 100% in FIJs.

Thank you again Sir

Regards

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by binit bhagat - Friday, 15 August 2008, 01:43 PM
  Hi  TG,
  gre88 work...  FIJ was never so lucidly explained anywhere..  thanks a lot..   if u got some quizzes on this section..  it wud hav been so helpful....smile
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by deepak garg - Sunday, 31 August 2008, 03:32 PM
  hi TG

"I like X", is this a fact or judgement?
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by ashish khr - Sunday, 31 August 2008, 08:15 PM
 

fact

  as either I like X or not.open to justification.

   and this not changes from person to person.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by deepak garg - Sunday, 31 August 2008, 11:00 PM
  even i thought so, i found this question in some forum, ppl had different opinion there, if its a fact then what wud "I like X for her soothing smile" be?
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by gaurav guglani - Tuesday, 9 September 2008, 08:51 PM
 

Sir

Thanks for a nice article.

it proved really helpful to me.

also,please provide some guidlines for the paracompletion questions

very soon as they are most difficult to face

thanks

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by ashish khr - Wednesday, 10 September 2008, 10:42 PM
 

hi tg

   thnx 4 such a nice article .

   but   I really need a article on parajumbles.

   plz post one.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Sumit Ahuja - Monday, 15 September 2008, 03:17 PM
 

Very good article....Can you please post something like this on UDLI ?

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Sheetal Koul - Monday, 15 September 2008, 06:09 PM
 

hi..

good article it really sequenced my jumbled mind...

thx a lot...

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by nimish vikas - Monday, 15 September 2008, 11:24 PM
  HI TG
KINDLY CLARIFY

"The footprint warned Robinson Crusoe that there was someone else on the island."
This statement seems to be a fact to me. robinson is doing the inference, but the statement "the foot print warned RC of something." can be considered by us as TRUE or FALSE (,as a piece of history).

a similar statement is " The alarm made Raghu jump." .
Is it a fact or an inference. It seems inference to me.

thank you for the wonderful work you are doing.
No coaching is better than this site of yours.

nimish
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by arvind kumar - Wednesday, 17 September 2008, 09:53 AM
  actually i have a doubt to ask about... observe this statement
the next Olympics will happen in 2012.
what kind of statement is this....
 a "Fact" statement  can be either true or false, and similarly this statement has only one certainty of the two, i.e. we can tell whether Olympics will take place or not in 2012.
on the other hand, this event is supposed to happen in future, but according to definition i.e.An event cannot become a fact unless it has occurred . also, fact is Confined to what one observes; cannot be made about the future..

so this statement comes under which category... fact or judgment???
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Prashant Chanchal - Saturday, 20 September 2008, 01:00 AM
  Hello, let me tranna answer your doubt.
The statement: the next Olympics will happen in 2012 is a FACT!

I guess you're getting things unnecessarily complicated, putting words in your own mouth.
We can always verify this statement through various sources / records etc. It may or mayn't be true, once you see this is something VERIFIABLE, stop right there.

As per "also, fact is Confined to what one observes; cannot be made about the future.." please note the speaker / author is actually just putting forth the statement as learnt / observed by him from the sources.


Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Vineet Kumar - Thursday, 2 October 2008, 01:33 PM
 

Even i m waiting 4 d same

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by felis maniac - Thursday, 16 October 2008, 11:21 AM
 

plz help .....

1) Indian airline companies are cutting flights and postponing plans for fleet aquisition on account of lower revenues caused by rising fuels.

IS THIS AN INFERENCE AS--"on account..fuels" is a FACT n the other part is INFERRED from it

2)Increased fuel surcharges have led to doubling of airfares, and that is deterring the low and middle income group travellers who were beginning to switch to air travel from rail travel.

ISN'T THIS AN INFERENCE TOO?

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by jeet jeet - Thursday, 23 October 2008, 12:32 PM
 

hi tg..

kindly explain some funda of Upstream Aurgument, Downstream Argument,

Lateral Argument & irrelevent Argument

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by King Anand - Monday, 10 November 2008, 12:50 AM
 

@tg

nice one sir.

thank u!

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Jerry JFK - Tuesday, 31 March 2009, 01:11 AM
  Loved ur FIJ article ...
Query:-
The Jury is, however, still out whether this will be accepted by the two parties.

the answer key says FACT.

I called it a Judgement ...

explain how ?
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by kat goel - Thursday, 11 June 2009, 11:47 PM
  Nice article TG ..
I need improvement in  questions about incorrect usage of a word .
Any suggestions how to improve on that?
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Sushil Sharma - Saturday, 27 June 2009, 06:58 PM
 

Hi TG sir,

Thanks a lot for such an informative article!

I have one doubt regarding Inference  and judgement.In the below sentence

The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDScare Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people(which is an inference)

If I change the sentence to

The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDScare Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, should lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people

then will it become a judgment ?as the latter one suggets the possibility of happening of something.

Regards,

Sushil.

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Ahefaz Khan - Tuesday, 30 June 2009, 08:20 PM
  hi tg,

the statement: Because we had three wars with the neighboring country, we should keep our forces ready for the fourth.

Here the first part (we had three wars with our neighbours) appears to be a fact. Wo why cant we call this as an inference.
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by manoj kumar - Wednesday, 8 July 2009, 10:33 PM
 

Hi Ahfaaz..

there was confusion to me as well earlier, but it is judgment only as the part after comma i.e. "we should keep"  makes it an opinion, hence its a judgement..

 

TG sir, am i right???cool

 

Regards

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by dipak ramavat - Wednesday, 29 July 2009, 09:21 PM
 

cause it is not necesary to go 4 4th war. this was an opinion of an author, henc a judgement

 

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by siddharth jain - Monday, 19 October 2009, 09:22 PM
  Hi TG,
Could you please tell me the solution to the question below.

(1) French toys: one could not find a better illustration of the fact that the adult Frenchman sees the child as another self.
(2) All the toys one commonly sees are reduced copies of human objects, as if in the eyes of the public the child is nothing but a smaller man.
(3) Forms that stimulate creativity are very rare : a few sets of blocks, which appeal to the spirit of do-it-yourself, are the only ones which offer dynamic forms.
(4) All machine-made French toys always mean something, and this something is always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life.

FJFJ

FFJJ

JJFJ

IIJJ

IJIJ


One more request, if you could put 15 to 20 selected questions virtually covering 70-80% types of IJF in an explained solution type. It would be of immense help to all of us.
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Prince Kumar - Tuesday, 20 October 2009, 05:10 PM
 

Siddharth,

Please confirm if the answer is as follows:

1. Fact

2. Judgement

3. Fact

4. Judgement

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by divya gera - Tuesday, 20 October 2009, 11:08 PM
 

Hi TG,

shouldn't "Because we had three wars with our neighboring country, we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one." be an inference instead of a judgement?

Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Sachin Kulkarni - Wednesday, 21 October 2009, 12:05 PM
  Hi TG,
Is the statement "Because we had three wars with our neighboring country, we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one."
Inference or Judgement ?

we had three wars with our neighboring country ---- Fact
we should keep our armed forced ready for the fourth one-----Conclusion

Sachin
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Harsimran Sahni - Thursday, 22 October 2009, 01:16 PM
  Hi TG,

I have doubt regarding elow sentence:-

Given the poor quality of service in the public service, the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.

Fact-
Given the poor quality of service in the public service.

Based on this fact we can conclude the below sentence..

Conclusion-
the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.

So this should be inference..

Please explain if i am wrong??
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Brijesh Kumar - Friday, 13 November 2009, 07:06 PM
  The matter is very good sufficient for basic only, need to some more critical examples for CAT level
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Anant Tuteja - Sunday, 29 November 2009, 05:43 AM
  Thanks TG ...
It is a very informative article and it really helped me a lot ...
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by pardeep sharma - Sunday, 29 November 2009, 11:36 AM
  Wonderful article smile......thanks
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by rahul dbond - Thursday, 21 January 2010, 11:57 PM
  thanks 4 sch gr8 n simple clues
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by Srinivas M T - Sunday, 18 April 2010, 05:40 PM
  Hi TG sir,

Nice article,

F,I,J seems to be very simple after going through this.

Regards, cool
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by mohil mittal - Saturday, 8 October 2011, 10:40 AM
  The legislature is advocating vigorously against intrusion of judiciary in parliamentary affairs.

How can this statement be termed as fact...
intensity of advocation varies from person to person??
Re: Critical Reasoning Primer- Fact, Inference and Judgment
by vaibhav jain - Sunday, 28 July 2013, 04:41 PM
  "I found the music loud". Is it not a judgement???